Heat, Greed and Human Need – Prof. Ian Gough

Yesterday as part of Maynooth University’s Social Justice week, Prof. Ian Gough from the London School of Economics spoke on his new book Heat, Greed and Human Need: Climate Change, Capitalism and Sustainable Wellbeing.  Prof. Gough has been working on climate change for the last 10 years, looking at the issue through the lens of capitalism and the welfare state, and drawing on his earlier work on the theory of human need.

He began by explaining that the book focuses on the following questions:

  • What are the social impacts of climate change?
  • How is capitalism driving climate change?
  • How can we improve wellbeing?

Prof. Gough suggested that climate change research is dominated by scientists and economists, and now it is time to bring in the social sciences. His book explores the intersections between economy (Greed), Society (Need) and Environment (Heat). He suggested that social policy and climate policy often ignore each other, and that we need to look at “eco-social policies”.

He contrasted between the “moral economy” and “political economy” perspectives (below), and used Kate Raworth’s Doughnut Economics model to expand the “moral economy” model. He then outlined the main points of each section of the book.

heat-greed-and-human-need-defining-necessities-for-sustainable-and-equitable-wellbeing-3-638

Heat

Prof. Gough briefly outlined the science of climate change, identifying three climate policy agendas – Mitigation, Geo-engineering and Adaptation – explaining that he only focuses on mitigation.

Greed

He then discussed capitalism and the concept of “legitimate greed” as the driving force of the economic system, stressing that economic growth is the key driver of emissions. He noted that eco-efficiency has improved but has been outpaced by growing output. Prof. Gough also highlighted the difference between production-based and consumption-based emissions, explaining that richer countries consume far more emissions than they produce, while the opposite is true of countries such as China and India. He argued that it is consumption-based, not production-based emissions that matter, and explained that consumption emissions in the UK are increasing. He also introduced us to the concept of the “Plutocene”, the world’s richest 10% who are responsible for 50% of consumption emissions (below).

M4365-GOUGH_9781785365102_t (Colour).indd

Prof. Gough also argued that along with the double injustice that poorer countries suffer more from the negative impacts of climate change, there is a “triple injustice” – reducing emissions can also harm poorer groups i.e. climate policy can cause rising inequality. Rising inequality drives excessive consumption, longer working hours and more debt, which drives up emissions. It also hinders collective action to control emissions, eroding trust and solidarity. He suggested that we must move beyond “green growth” for two reasons:

  • Pragmatically – eco-efficiency will not be enough
  • Morally – issues of equity and justice are sidelined

Need

Moving on to human needs, Prof. Gough returned to the Brundtland Report, explaining that the famous definition of sustainable development, which references the “needs” of future and present generations, contains two key concepts: Needs and Limitations, but needs are not referred to during the rest of the report. Drawing on his earlier work, he proposed that humans have three core universal basic needs in order to act and to flourish: social participation, health and autonomy. He referenced this Lancet study from 2017 on the impact of climate change on human health. Prof. Gough explained that human needs are central to sustainable wellbeing because they are:

  • Universal
  • Objective – unlike happiness
  • Plural and non-substitutable
  • Satiable and sufficient – unlike wants or preferences
  • Cross-generational

He stated that because of these qualities, needs provide a moral metric to move beyond green growth.

What can be done?

Prof. Gough explained that welfare states still perform crucial roles in meeting human needs e.g. social services, income security, which strengthen security and resilience in the face of climate change. He then outlined the various climate policy instruments e.g. carbon taxing, UK climate change act. His thesis is that we need to join up these two areas – social policy ignores climate sustainability and climate policies can be inequitable e.g. carbon pricing hurts lower income households and current UK policies to retrofit housing exacerbate fuel poverty (Hills report).

He identified three strategies towards a sustainable future, to be developed consecutively in this order:

1. Equitable green growth

  • Green new deal to retrofit the housing stock
  • Invest in low carbon public transport
  • Social tariffs for electricity, gas and water
  • Stronger policies to reduce inequality

But he cautioned that this calls for active state-steering of markets, incompatible with neo-liberal capitalism… what Naomi Klein calls the “tragedy of bad timing”

2. Recompose consumption in rich countries

  • Bring human needs and “need satisfiers” centre-stage
  • Interrogate consumer preferences and consumer sovereignty
  • Distinguish necessities and luxuries
    • Consumer demand is driven by wants and incomes
    • Bring together citizens and experts
    • Citizens’ forums that are inclusive and empowering
    • “public engagement through reasoned deliberation”
    • Must be a problem-solving process, not a way of aggregating people’s preferences
    • This happens already with the calculation of the UK Minimum Income Standards (MIS) at Loughborough University – emissions would be reduced by 37%

Eco-social policies:

  • Promote and invest in co-benefits – cycling and walking, eating less meat
  • Tax high-carbon luxuries – smart VAT, remove incentives for frequent flyers
  • Control advertising and product placement
  • Trial carbon rationing – introduce carbon cards?
  • Expand and strengthen social provision e.g. Universal Basic services – water, energy, transport, housing – improves equity and sustainability
  • Decarbonise welfare states – shrink carbon footprint of public services, upstream prevention throughout public services

3. Degrowth/post-growth – reduce total demand in rich countries

  • Can we envision a transitional strategy to such a radical future?
  • A starting point – reduce paid work time
    • Share work and reduce consumption
    • Move away from 40 hours to release time to live more sustainably

In conclusion, he called for a “new social settlement”, with sustainability goals as a central feature of eco-social policies. He closed with four imperatives:

  1. We must stay “within the lifebelt” of ecological boundaries
  2. Greening capitalism is essential but not enough
  3. It is vital to change consumption patterns in the rich world
  4. We need to find alternatives to growth itself
Advertisements

Kilkenomics 2017

IMG_20171111_131732

Last month the annual Kilkenomics Festival, a economics-comedy festival, took place in Kilkenny, and as usual featured a number of interesting panels on environmental and social issues.

Doughnut Economics

This year UK economist Kate Raworth came to Kilkenny to discuss her theory of “Doughnut Economics”, which reorients traditional economics around the planetary boundaries concept, as the diagram below illustrates. She began by explaining that “at the beginning of the 20th century economics had no goal and it got a cuckoo goal of GDP growth”. Now “it’s time to chuck out the cuckoo from the nest and get a goal we actually want”. Kate explained that the hole in the middle of the doughnut is where “people are falling short of lifes essentials”. She stressed that “we want to get everyone into the doughnut but not go outside the crust of the doughnut”. Related image

The panel went on to discuss how 20th century economic theories are not appropriate in the context of 21st century ecological changes. Much of the discussion focused on the difficulty of valuing natural and social capital in pounds. One of the panellists, Henry Leveson-Gower, founder of Promoting Economic Pluralism, noted that the approach to environmental economics in the 1970s and 80s was to value everything, but “for this to work you have to keep the threat to the environment in place; we’re going to destroy it unless you pay us money not to destroy it”.

Another panellist, Peter Antonini, an economics lecturer in University College, London, suggested that a common denominator is needed for decision-making and that money is a useful measure in this regard. He suggested also that economics is not suited to being used in an activist way, to achieve a goal.

Henry countered that some branches of economics e.g. complexity, feminist, institutional economics, “don’t need pound signs”. He suggested that measuring everything in terms of money means we “crush things and don’t properly value the things that don’t fit neatly.”

Kate agreed, arguing that the assumption in mainstream economics that money is the best incentive is not borne out in behavioural economics. She noted that “different approaches bring out different behaviours in people”. She also highlighted the power of words, suggesting that the more we are told about the concept of “economic man”, the more we come to believe it.

Kate suggested that we need to talk about “planetary household management”, highlighting that the economy has “four provisioning sections – market, state, household, commons”. However, the household and commons are not included in GDP “because there’s no money; utility cannot be measured in money”. Supporting her point, Henry concluded that “mainstream economics tries to start from the individual and work out, but it doesn’t work”. Instead, it is about the “values and behaviours of tribes… we need to create organisations and institutions where people will act on values, and we need to reorganise our companies”.

Social Capital

Naoise Nunn, co-founder of the festival, hosted a panel on “Social Capital and Public Life: Why we cannot prosper with broken communities”. Although it had no common panellists, this session picked up where Doughnut Economics left off, discussing the “associations that we have that are typically outside the market” and the value of community networks.

One of the panellists, Robert Shrimsley, the Managing Editor of FT.com, described social capital as “how many people around you who will do something for you that isn’t in their immediate interest…It works when people have a common cause that overrides their individual needs”. He also cited the book Bowling Alone by Robert Putnam. However, he cautioned that things that work well at local level don’t always work at a national level, which is more diverse, with more opinions.

Another panellist, Nicholas Gruen, CEO of Lateral Economics, introduced the idea of the Dunbar number, developed by anthropologist Robin Dunbar, who suggested that we are only capable of having close social relationships with up to 150 people. After 150 you need to develop institutions to function. He also suggested that social capital cannot be developed from the top down i.e. from government level, and mentioned the Family by Family initiative in Australia as bottom-up social capital building.

The final panellist, Simon Kuper, a journalist with the Financial Times, stressed that “loneliness is increasing and there needs to be some kind of collective intervention”. He suggested that populism brings people together and appeals more to lonelier people.

The all-male panel ended with an interesting discussion about gender balance, after an audience member asked why there were no women on the panel. Naoise Nunn explained that more women than men are invited to speak at Kilkenomics, but every year they end up with more male panellists. Robert Shrimsley suggested that women might “turn up, see what we’re talking about and say no thanks”. Do female economists feel alienated by current economics paradigms and discourse? Something for Kilkenomics to address next year perhaps.

 

 

 

‘The Transition to Sustainability in Europe post-Brexit: The Periphery, Populism and Progressive Politics’

IMG_20171029_170403

Last Sunday the European Green Foundation, together with the Green Foundation Ireland, organised a workshop in Queens University Belfast (above) on “Brexit: Populism and Progressive Politics”. The one day event was divided into four panels featuring speakers from a number of sectors, including academia, politics, think tanks and NGOs.

Panel 1: Brexit and Progressive Politics

The first panel began with Steven Agnew, leader of the Green Party Northern Ireland. Discussing Brexit, he made the point that while the Green party will fight for the rights of people who aren’t included e.g. women, LGBTQ, it is less effective at including people “who are not as educated as us, people who have been victims of the policies of the right” i.e. many of the people who voted for Brexit. He asked “how do we let them tell their story, people who the working classes can connect to? Our big prejudice is education. We need to have these conversations in community centre as well as Queens University”

Ray Cunningham, Co-ordinator of the GreenHouse think tank, was the next speaker and he explained and challenged the idea of a “Green brexit”, as proposed by Michael Gove, among others. He highlighed that the people who voted for Brexit were not particularly sympathetic to green or progressive ideals, citing this YouGov survey in February 2017. Ray pointed out that “these outcomes require a government willing to pursue them and an electorate ready to support them, this is wishful thinking. You can’t push something through without a democratic mandate”. He also drew our attention to two relevant books on the topic: Ruling the Void and the Lure of Greatness. He concluded that there can only be a “progressive brexit” with the break up of the UK into republics within the EU, arguing that “Britain is aleady breaking up through how brexit is being handled”, e.g. Teresa May’s “very Southern English” cabinet.

The final speaker was Stephen Nolan of Trademark, who discussed the ideas of “radical munipicalism” and “solidarity economy”. Radical munipicalism is about “dispersing power and building social power” e.g. the Department of Commons in Naples, Barcelona en Comú and Cooperation Jackson. Examples of the solidarity economy are the Mondragon co-operative, the  Red Belt in Italy, where 50% of the workforce are in co-operatives, and the town of Marinaleda in Spain, which has 0% unemployment. Inspired by these examples, Steven has supported the development of several workers co-ops in Belfast in the last few years, including the Belfast Cleaning Society in 2011, the Creative Workers Co-op, Farmegeddon brewery, Lunasa cafe and Thats Arts. Read more about them here.

Panel 2: Brexit and Sustainability in Northern Ireland, the UK and Europe

The second panel focused on the impact of Brexit and the environment. Viviane Gravey, a lecturer in European Politics at Queens, suggested that Brexit creates challenges not only for environmental law in the UK but in the EU. She noted that while the UK government has often opposed EU environmental law, it has been a key leader in particular areas such as agriculture and climate change, and it is unclear who will replace the UK in this role e.g. the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) may become less green.

Nichola Hughes of Sustainable Northern Ireland spoke of the challenges related to waste, climate change and energy. On waste, she drew our attention to the EU’s circular economy package, warning that products incompatible with the package could be shipped to the UK and used there. On climate change, she noted that the UK government has recently adopted its fifth low carbon budget, but it the UK is not part of the Emissions Trading Scheme, how will the government be accountable? She also noted that getting local authorities in Northern Ireland to act on climate change is difficult because, unlike in the Republic, there is no NI legislation to require them to do climate action plans. In relation to energy, Nichola observed that there is an element of the Tory party that is pro fracking and nuclear, but if renewable energy turns out to be “the better option financially” then it will be adopted.

James Orr of Friends of the Earth Northern Ireland focused on environmental issues around the border. For example, he noted that in the case of opposition to fracking in Fermanagh, industry played one side of the border off against the other. He suggested that “ecocide” is happening along the Irish border, citing the results of this project. His proposition was that we need to “rewild” the border, along the lines of the African transfrontier rewilding project.

IMG_20171029_134712

Panel 3: Brexit, the Border and Futures for Ireland and Northern Ireland

The first speaker was Katy Hayward, a reader in Sociology in Queens, who took us through the impact of the EU on the border. She explained that the EU has changed the border in a number of ways, such as the depoliticization of cross border co-operation, common EU citizenship, the right to cross border work and education and research co-operation.

Claire Bailey, MLA for the Green Party NI, spoke of how, in the UK, the impact of Brexit on Ireland is not being considered, and Ireland is often seen as something seperate. She added that “we have never made people feel comfortable with the multiple identities we can have in Northern Ireland”, and explained that Brexit complicates this further.

The next speaker was John Kyle, Belfast city councillor and member of the Progressive Unionist Party. He noted that Unionists are very divided on Brexit, even within their parties, and that “tribal divisions between nationalists and unionists are worse than they have been for a couple of decades”. He argued that in Northern Ireland people view the EU institutions as remote and bureaucratic. He suggested that we need a North-South ministerial council, an active civic forum, a British-Irish council, a common travel area and to see the cultural rights of NI citizens protected.

Lastly, David Phinnemore, Professor of European Politics in Queens, set out his ideas for “differentiated withdrawal” for Northern Ireland, whereby the terms of withdrawal and the future relationship with the EU could be different for NI. He suggested that there is precedence for treating part of a State differently e.g. Greenland, Svaalbard. He observed that a language is beginning to emerge around “flexible and imaginative solutions” to reflect the unique situation of NI, and Teresa May also recently spoke of finding “special solutions” for NI.

Final session: Roundtable discussion on Populism, Brexit and the European Green Movement

The first speaker in this sessions was Dick Pels, Professor of Sociology at Brunel University in London. He discussed global politics in 2017, with an emphasis on Brexit and Trump, suggesting that what we are seeing is a clash between two types of democracy – populist (plebicitary) and pluralist (liberal).

Lee McGowan, Professor of Politics in Queens, looked at the rise of populism in Europe, drawing our attention to the reduced support for the major parties in the recent German elections. He noted that centre right parties e.g. in Austria, are now starting to adopt the slogans and themes of the far right parties, “making political capital out of it”. He asked “are we seeing a Silent counter revolution – revenge against the establishment and left-wing elites?” Prof McGowan used the image below, which shows how people accross Europe feel about non-EU immigration, to illustrate his points.

Image result for Fast facts on the backdrop to politics

Sophie Long, a recent doctoral graduate in politics in Queens, offered the following advice on how Greens can respond to populism:

  • Deconstruct populist narratives because they don’t offer any truth e.g. they dont tell us how to deal with capitalism, automation, industrialisation
  • Reclaim reason and challenge anti-intellectualism
  • Look at feminist and queer responses to brexit. The narratives of leavers are masculine and about control. This LSE blog on voter values tells us about gaps that Greens could be addressing
  • Be critical and vigilant about the idea of a white working class, e.g. one third of Asian voters voted for Brexit
  • Offer alternatives e.g. green values of co-operation, non-violence, evidence
  • Consider how women are impacted by all this – there is only one woman on the nine person Brexit negotiating team

Finally, Eamon Ryan, TD and leader of the Irish Green party, discussed Brexit and the rise of the right. To conclude, he had some inspiring words on how Greens can use Brexit as an opportunity to offer people an alternative to populism:

“If ecology is about connection and interconnection, we need to talk to the other side, we need to go out and talk to everyone. You have to engage in a way that’s respectful. We can’t completely cut off the right. In doing this we will be true to our original principles.

Grab the space by being decent, by talking to everyone, by working with everyone, not by trying to be the boss; start listening”

 

European Ideas Lab – Greens meet Changemakers

IMG_20171028_130915

Last weekend the European Greens came to Dublin for an innovative event, the European Ideas Lab, the second of four to be held in various regions of Europe in 2017 and 2018. The event, held in the Law Society in Dublin, was subtitled “Greens meet Changemakers”, with changemakers being representatives of various NGOs, Universities and other organisations around Ireland. As Ska Keller, MEP and Co-Chair of the Green Group in the European Parliament, explained in her welcoming address to delegates, the aim of the two day conference was to “bring civil society and greens closer together, exchanging experiences and ideas”.

The event opened on Friday night with a plenary session entitled “The Path Forward: towards a sustainable future”, featuring three speakers: David O’Donoghue, Ireland’s former permanent representative to the UN and co-chair of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) talks, Stephen Humphreys, Associate Professor of International Law in London School of Economics, and Ruth Davis, a writer, campaigner, political analyst and conservationist.

David O’Donoghue gave some insight on the process of developing the SDGs, which he said involved “a lot of luck and a fair amount of patience”. He explained that the real challenge of the SDGs is understanding the interconnections between the different policy areas, and the need to work across them in a coordinated way. He also stressed how countries have to work together on this “mutual learning exercise”. David noted that each country will have to submit a voluntary report on progress on the SDGs, with an accompanying action plan. Ireland’s report is due next July and he noted that “no country wants to be humiliated based on lack of progress”.

Stephen Humphreys focused on climate migration, explaining that the issue is “intractable” because it raises contradictory feelings for all of us. He noted that a number of uncertainties make it difficult to estimate the numbers of climate migrants, both now and in the future. He suggested that “we need to mobilise real money quickly and effectively towards the most vulnerable countries and people”.

Dr Humphreys made an interesting point regarded the language of climate migration, suggesting that there is a worryingly popular view that there is “no such thing as a climate refugee”, because the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) is wary of diluting the convention on human rights. He commented that “we seem to have developed an uneasy consensus that our system to manage migrants might break down if the numbers increase”, adding that “refugees get a pass but we can pick and choose with migrants”. To conclude, Dr Humphreys offered five ideas for what he termed “decent thinking”:

  • Hug your inner nomad
  • Practice hospitality
  • Remember your history, we are a nation of migrants
  • Learn to live with less
  • Speak up, start the conversation

The final speaker on Friday, Ruth Davis, contrasted the climate movement with the wider environmental movement, suggesting that the climate movement is “powered by a sense of momentum”, but she doesn’t see this in relation to other key areas such as deforestation, resource exploitation or extinction. She highlighted what she saw as “things that make for powerful campaigning”:

  • Evidence, even in a post-truth world
  • Learn about money and power and start to disrupt it
  • Understand how to organise e.g. spreading information through digital platforms
  • Convince ourselves that this is possible e.g. we can feed ourselves without chemical agriculture, we can change our diets.
  • Establish an alternative discourse

The panel was followed by a “Forward Thinking Agora” where delegates were sent to cluster around and discuss some “subvertising” posters by the Brandalism project (below).

IMG_20171028_131112  img_20171028_131129.jpg

Day 2 began with a similar plenary session, in which six invited changemakers spoke about their work or organisations:

Transition Towns – Jay Tompt

Jay focused on the work Transition Towns is doing in Totnes to explore alternative economic systems. He spoke of the need for “new economic actors, relationships and models” and for “investment and financial entities to support entrepreneurs”

ACES: Livelihoods and land use change in Mozambique – Estrella Lopez Moya

Estrella outlined the findings of the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) project, which look at livelihood changes for commuinities as woodland is converted into agricultural land in Mozambique. She suggested that “we need to manage trade offs at a landscape scale, through participation, negotiation and cooperation”

Cloughjordan Ecovillage – Davie Philip

Davie gave an introduction to the ecovillage, explaining how it has driven citizen-led development

All-Ireland Pollinator Plan – Dr. Una Fitzpatrick

Úna explained how the Pollinator plan was developed on a voluntary basis, without funding, and has now been supported by 68 government and non-governmental organisations. There are now related documents targeted at different stakeholders e.g. farmers, industry. She noted that biodiversity is a problem that people can understand and relate to, and progress can be quite easily tracked and measured.

Black Protest: Ania Glogowska and Magdalena Galkiewicz

Ania and Magdalena spoke of their activism for womens’ rights in Poland. In 2016 the Polish government proposed a Bill to make abortion in Poland illegal and send any women caught undertaking an illegal abortion to jail for 5 years. This sparked the rise of the Gals4Gals movement, who collected signatures to propose their own counter-bill to legalise abortion. After the counter-bill was rejected, the government started to process the anti abortion law, leading to the Black Monday protest and national womens strike on October 3rd 2016. The government has taken a step back from the bill but is still trying to get it through, so it is expected that there will be more protests in Poland next month.

Cork Food Policy Council – Dr. Colin Sage

Dr Sage outlined some of the work of the Cork Food Policy Council in promoting food sovereignty and sustainability around Cork, including hosting a “Feed the City” event, launching “Incredible edible” boxes, greening the “historic spine” of Cork, running the Food Harvest festival and helping organisations such as University College Cork to grow food directly in Cork.

Energy/Climate workshop:

There were 18 workshops across three sessions on Saturday, so only three workshops are discussed here. The first was on “Energy/Climate”, facilitated by Eamon Ryan, Irish Green Party Leader, and Reinhard Bütikofer, MEP and Co-Chair of the European Green Party.

Eamon Ryan took us through the proposed North Sea Grid wind energy project, which would have the potential to produce 8% of Europe’s energy and reduce the amount of onshore pylons required. He noted that it is difficult to develop these kinds of projects as, based on his experience as Minister for Energy, energy ministers tend not to think outside national boundaries. He presented the illustration below of the proposed grid.

Related image

Eamon highlighted the uncertainty of the energy markets e.g. the costs of wind energy have come down by over 50% in the last three years due to bigger, more powerful turbines and change in the market systems. He commented that we are starting to see big ambition at scale and that the “next quarter of the revolution will come by changing the entire system”.

Reinhard Bütikofer, who is currently working to form the next German government, offered six core ingredients for succcessful transition to low carbon:

  1. Guiding vision (which we have)
  2. Local initiative and regional initiative – we need to build the foundations of an alternative
  3. Strong research and innovation
  4. Transform the markets through regulation – institute price for carbon around Europe and scrap fossil fuel subsidies
  5. Fight hard to avoid fossil fuel lock in – block big infrastructure projects
  6. Democratic accountability, to make sure that regulation is implemented and international cooperation is pursued

Reinhard commented that “everybody in energy policy talks about the energy triangle – sustainability, affordability and availability”. He stressed the importance of engaging with business but making changes structural, reminding us that “short-termism is the crux in business”. He argued that:

“If you’re just the happy and the knowledgeable few, you won’t change the world, you have to find ways of bringing other actors on board.  If you want to engage business people you have to talk to them in business terms”

Eamon also highlighted the role of business in developing renewable energy systems. He suggested that while “small is beautiful… we will not run a data transmitter or a steel industry on a local system, we need a transnational, renewable production and storage system”. He stressed however that we need the political system to show leadership and put a regulatory framework in place.

Brexit workshop

This workshop, which looked at the potential impact of Brexit on the environment, was facilitated by Michael Ewing, Coordinator of The Environmental Pillar, and Craig McGuicken, Chief Executive Officer of Northern Ireland Environment Link.

Michael Ewing outlined the layers of environmental law and guidelines from the global to national levels:

  • Global conventions e.g. UNFCC
  • Regional conventions e.g. Aarhus convention
  • EU legislation e.g. water framework directive. Also fundamental principles of “polluter pays” and the “precautionary principle” (Article 191 in the Lisbon treaty)
  • Various international conventions which are not binding, and countries are given a slap on the wrist if they contravene them
  • UK Law – legislation transposing EU law. Many EU laws will be transposed through the UK government’s Great Repeal bill.
  • EU strategies, policies and programmes e.g. EAP, CAP, IMPEL

Presentation of the legal framework and a discussion of current cross-border environmental initiatives was followed by a group discussion on Brexit and the environment.

Economy/Community workshop

This workshop was led by Jay Tompt of Transition Towns, who explained the Totnes “Reconomy” project. He described the programme as “community-supported entrepreneurism”, the principles of which are as follows:

  • Citizen led economic change
  • Fair and inclusive
  • Regenerative and resilient
  • Inspiration from a variety of sources e.g permaculture, degrowth, community wealth building, open source and commons

He explained that the aim of the project is to “create the conditions for new economic actors, relationships and models to emerge and flourish”. To do so the project seeks to:

  • Catalyse entreprenuerial problem solving culture
  • Mobilise local financial and social capital
  • Build out ‘enterprising ecosystems’
  • Weave ‘convergence networks’ e.g. community energy talk to the community housing people, to the community agriculture people

A key element of the Reconomy project is the “Local Entrepreneur Forum”, where aspiring entrepreneurs pitch their ideas to the local community, who can then invest in the idea. The community can make financial and non-financial investments e.g. time, in the company. The results of the LEFs to date are shown in the image below, which illustrates that of the 27 businesses established from the LEFs, 23 are still in operation.

IMG_20171028_161908

 

Jay concluded with some advice on how other towns can approach running an LEF. He indicated that first comes “preparing the soil” – assessing local conditions (mapping networks and allies, import substitution survey) and then engaging and building support. The LEF itself is the next stage, “planting the acorn”. Finally there is “cultivating the garden”, which involes nurturing relationships, setting up an entrepreneurs’ incubator, and expanding the reconomy to include elements like a mutual credit system, a local bank, social enterprise networks and local investor networks. Further information can be found in the Local Economic Blueprint publication.

IMG_20171028_132838

The Law Society, venue for the European Ideas Lab

IMG_20171028_125755 IMG_20171028_151727

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Some of the recycled tyre sculptures dotted around the Law Society for the conference

 

EPA Climate lecture – Communicating Climate Change

IMG_20171026_185801

Last Thursday evening the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hosted its annual climate lecture on “Communicating climate change – why so difficult?”, delivered by Prof. Chris Rapley, climate scientist at University College London, who spoke for about an hour to a packed room.

The lecture was introduced by Laura Burke, Director General of the EPA, who explained the role of the EPA in supporting the national dialogue on climate action, creating awareness, engagement and motivation to act. She said that the aim of the annual public lecture is to “engage a wider public dialogue on the issue of climate change”, suggesting that “the gap between science and society can lead to a disconnect between evidence and action”.

Chris Rapley spent the early part of his lecture presenting basic climate science, explaining how “humans have upset the energy balance of the planet”, causing “a change in the metabolism of the planet”. He used this graphic to illustrate the change in the average temperature of the planet between 1850 and 2017. He also highlighted that the small overall change has a big impact on hot and cold extremes e.g. as reflected in the temperature of 53.7C recorded in Ahvaz in Iran earlier this year. Prof. Rapley also showed a satelite graphic of the polar ice caps, stressing that we need to realise that “this distant place is connected to you and me in ways that are very poorly understood”. He summarised the impact of climate change as a “cascade of consequences of upsetting the energy balance of the planet”, as summarised in the slide below.

IMG_20171026_193141

Prof. Rapley also spoke of his belief in human ingenuity, citing green technology and the reducing cost of renewable energy, a technological optimism consistent with ecological modernisation theory. He also spoke of his work with Shell’s scenario planning team, taking us through the graph below. He suggested that rather than the crash abatement program represented by the red line, we need a much more ambitious plan now, represented by the blue line.

IMG_20171026_194349

The later part of the lecture looked at issues around communicating climate change. He suggested that it is a very difficult problem for us to deal with as it induces fear and anxiety, and “evolution left us incapable of dealing with it”.

IMG_20171026_194929

Prof. Rapley argued that what we feel when we hear about climate change causes cognitive dissonance, and scientists have not thought through this emotional aspect, so we find ways to deny it. He stated that “the issue is a threat to the neoliberal belief system because it requires collective action, regulation and government interference in your freedom, anathema to neoliberals”. He suggested that individuals of a “more communalist” view will see climate change as a threat, and stressed the need to recognise the emotional and ideological aspects of climate change.

IMG_20171026_195252

Prof. Rapley went on to explore the psychology behind climate change denial, drawing on the work of Kahneman, as seen in the slide above. He explained that 90% of our brain activity is unconscious, and we make sense of the world around us through automatic perceptions and associations. We respond to the reptilian brain, to emotion, and “we are much less rational than we think”. He also stressed that “we cluster with people who have similar views and values to our own, and tend to see the other side as the enemy”. He stated that “human beings are very tribal”, and like to go into an echo chamber where they reinforce their views.

Prof. Rapley finished by offering some advice on how to communicate climate change in creative ways. He explained that scientists use ‘information deficit’ mode to communicate, offering facts and evidence and trying to remove passion and emotion, but that this doesn’t happen outside the world of academia. He argued that people make sense of the world through storytelling, and that this is “the compelling way we engage the rest of humanity in making sense of the complex issues in the world around us”. He characterised effective storytelling as:

  • Engaging
  • Meaningful
  • Hopeful
  • Actionable
  • Experiential

Prof Rapley spoke of his experience in creating and performing in the play “2071“, which allowed him to deliver climate science in the informed expert mode, but in a different way. He suggested that this allowed the audience to engage in the emotional and ideological issues in a safe space. His parting message was that we must find a way of engaging people with the story of climate change but leaving them with hope. He believes that working with professionals in the arts community, and finding the fusion of skills in art and science can help us to deliver the message in a “hopeful but realistic way”.

 

Sheehy Skeffington School

The Sheehy Skeffington School is an annual conference on social justice and human rights and this year the focus was on human rights and migration. The conference aims to be a bridge between human rights, academia, and activism, and featured presentations and performances by academics, activists and artists on the theme of a humane approach to migration. As chair of the first session Carol Coulter noted, the theme is not just relevant on a global scale but in Ireland too; the 2016 Census revealed that 17.3% of the Irish population was not born in Ireland.

Prof Conor Gearty of London School of Economics gave a keynote address on human rights, migration and racism. He argued that until recently, racists felt that they had to hide behind intellectual arguments, but they no longer feel the need to. He suggested that the enduring legacy of Trump will be “a vulgarisation of politics”, and that Brexit was about a hatred of “the other”. Prof. Gearty argued that there is a dangerous idea that human rights is part of one culture but not another, that human rights does not apply to other cultures because “they’re not us”, citing the example of Israel claiming to be in favour of human rights but not signing any human rights treaties.

Prof. Gearty also discussed how the language of human rights can be a “fabulous activist tool”. He advised people seeking to make people aware of the human rights implications of particular situations to “find the issue that really matters to people locally and bring in human rights, because it builds the wider support and gives a strong sense of demand”. For example, pollution is a human rights issue, it is the right to be healthy.

An activist perspective came from Edel McGinley, Director of the Migrant Rights Centre Ireland. She highlighted that there are currently 63 million displaced people in the world, 24 million of whom are refugees. She remarked that societies need immigrants, that migration brings economic stability, and that there is a disconnect between xenophobia and racism and the needs of society. She argued that conservative voices are now seen as the middle ground and they are starting to frame the debate around migration. Edel concluded by calling for a legal framework for migration in Ireland.

Prof. Siobhan Mulally, a Professor of Human Rights Law in NUI Galway, spoke on workers rights, and how international and Irish laws interact to mitigate workers rights. She highlighted the power imbalance when employers get visas for their workers and can then threaten deportation. Prof. Mulally also drew our attention to the work of the Council of Europe on human trafficking.

Sorley McCaughey of Christian Aid spoke on the relationship between climate change and violence, looking at the relationship from both sides. He began by explaining the concept of “climate security”, where climate change is seen as a threat to global security, citing a 2014 report by the Pentagon. He noted that while the Pentagon might be defenders of climate science, they are not defenders of climate justice, and suggested that climate security and climate justice may be incompatible. Sorley made a number of points on the relationship between climate change and violence:

Does violence effect climate change?

  • Violence weakens societal structures and traditional coping mechanisms don’t work e.g. in the case of the drought in the Horn of Africa in 2011 when Somalia was more affected than neighbouring countries.
  • Violence destroys evidence of weather patterns
  • Violence can mean that aid packages e.g. for drought, get diverted from people who need them
  • He noted that climate adaptation is an inherently political process, citing the example of the Jordan Valley, where aquifiers were used as a bargaining tool in the Israeli-Palestine conflict

Does climate change effect violence?

  • There is no direct causal link, but climate change is an aggravator of the drivers of conflict
  • A 2014 IPCC report suggests that climate change will increase displacement of people
  • Climate change leads to slow onset disasters like drought, so people move more slowly e.g. looking for work
  • For example, in Syria, microfinance had been stoppped and co-operatives shut down, leaving people vulnerable when drought occured

Sorley lastly discussed the Christian Aid approach to dealing with climate change and violence, which is to develop resilience in tandem with confronting human rights issues, land rights, governance etc. He stressed that conflict resolution work will increasingly need to consider the impact of climate change.

 

Yanis Varoufakis at the Dublin ILF

IMG_20170528_161222

Yesterday former Greek Finance Minister Yanis Varoufakis, whose new book Adults in the Room has just been published, spoke in Dublin as part of the International Literature Festival. Varoufakis is a Professor of economics specialising in game theory. The session, which covered topics from power to austerity to the politics of the Eurozone, took the form of a Q&A with Sean Whelan, RTÉ’s Economics Correspondent, followed by some questions from the audience.

Adults in the Room outlines Varoufakis’ experience of negotiating on behalf of Greece with the IMF and the Eurozone during 2015. Yesterday’s talk gave some fascinating insights into how decisions are made at this level, and the power dynamics between EU countries.

Varoufakis’ proposal to the IMF was a “great debt restructuring” for Greece. He found that the major players agreed with his idea but would argue, as Christine Lagarde did, that “it can’t work”. Lagarde told him that so much political capital had been invested in the process of austerity that the IMF’s credibility depended on going through with it. He noted that “I was being lambasted as a left-wing crazy madman” but, as Wikileaks tapes showed, senior figures in the IMF agreed with his analysis.

Varoufakis had much to say about the individuals he negotiated with in Europe. He noted that he had little direct interaction with Angela Merkel, as negotiation is on a PM to PM and Finance Minister to Finance Minister basis, but he observed animosity between her and Wolfgang Schäuble, the German Minister of Finance. Varoufakis related that Schäuble once said to him: “your PM, he speaks to our PM all the time…what does he think he’s going to get from her? If anything is going to happen it’s througb me”.

He was also illuminating on the subject of the relationship between France and Germany, pointing out that “when Merkel enters the room, the French president – whoever it is – shuts up”. He explained that this is because, within the EU, France is a deficit country and Germany is a surplus country, so if the EU breaks up, there will be “a tsunami of capital fleeing France for Germany”. So “Mrs Merkel has a ‘get out of the Eurozone free’ card in her handbag”.

The new French president Emmanuel Macron made a positive impression on Varoufakis; he suggested that Macron was the only minister who understood the Eurozone, and noted that he intervened when the Troika attempted to shut down the Greek banks. He further commented that “Macron has the correct idea of the fiscal and economic architecture of the Eurozone” but that his policies may be “too little too late”.

Varoufakis was less enamoured of Irish Minister for Finance Michael Noonan. Asked what he thought of him he replied “not much…I found him insignificant…whenever he spoke he mumbled, and he missed every opportunity to promote the interests of Ireland”.

Hearing him speak it is not surprising that Varoufakis lasted only seven months in politics. He came across not as a politician but as an academic frustrated with the political structures that prevented people from acting on his science-based evidence. He suggested that politics at the EU level was “like 19th Century power… but instead of guns and armies they use fiscal and monetary policies”.

Varoufakis’ own suggestion for EU policy makers is increased capital investment in “green energy, infrastructure, research and development”. He advocated a “common investment program”, with debt reconstruction using ECB bonds. More specifically, what should small countries like Ireland do when negotiating with the EU: “go to Berlin with a well-thought out proposal…and a Plan B when they say no”.

UCD Rosemount Open Day 2017

IMG_20170526_134242

IMG_20170526_132233

University College Dublin is a town in itself, with over 30,000 students attending the 300 acre campus in Dublin 4. As such the campus has many little-known areas and facilities hidden around its fringes. Walkers through the woods at lunchtime might come across the running track, the School of Archaeology’s experimental archaeology site or…a field of cows. One of these hidden areas is UCD’s Eden, the Rosemount Environmental Research Station, which is generally closed to the public but held an open day yesterday.

Rosemount is UCD’s centre for plant research, with lots of fascinating studies taking place in its glasshouses. It also hosts the historical Irish apple collection i.e. an orchard with lots of different apple varieties, and the UCD bees which are producing Rosemount honey. The sunny pictures below give an idea of what sort of research is going on and the general bucolic pleasantness of the place.

IMG_20170526_132316

IMG_20170526_132140

The Rosemount Orchard and historical Irish apple collection

IMG_20170526_132820

IMG_20170526_132757

Research greenhouses and polytunnels at Rosemount

IMG_20170526_132540

Research with Bord na Mona assessing if organic by-products of the Agrifood industry can be used as compost

IMG_20170526_132637

Research investigating the GHG emissions of the invasive Gunnera tinctoria plant

IMG_20170526_132152

Enjoying Rosemount’s natural classroom

Sonáirte

IMG_20170521_160108

Last weekend I paid a visit to Sonáirte, an “eco-centre” in Laytown, about 30 minutes north of Dubin. Sonáirte is a registered charity which runs environmental education courses for children and adults. The centre incorporates gardens, a nature trail including a bird hide, an eco-shop, a cafe and…a bee museum! They have a great website with all the relevant info so I’ll let the pictures speak for themselves.

IMG_20170521_150626

Irish products from Human+Kind in the eco-shop

IMG_20170521_152308 IMG_20170521_152118

On the Nature Trail

IMG_20170521_154846 IMG_20170521_154822

A taste of what to expect on Sonáirte’s educational courses

IMG_20170521_152835 IMG_20170521_152931

In the Bird Hide

IMG_20170521_150153

Fair warning from the eco-shop

IMG_20170521_155631

Summer in the gardens

IMG_20170521_155813

Handy info in the Bee Museum

IMG_20170521_153047

View of the River Nanny as seen from the Bird Hide

Future in Food – focus on sustainability

20161123_140116

Sustainability is becoming increasingly important in the Food and Agri. industry, a sector which in Ireland accounts for 33% of annual GHG emissions. Future in Food is an annual conference exploring the latest developments in the Irish food and drink industry and featuring presentations on best practice from Irish food producers of all types and sizes. In 2016 the conference theme was sustainability.

The event opened with an address by Michael Creed, Minister for Agriculture, Food and Marine. The Minister began by stating that sustainability has never been more important. He suggested that it is now clear that energy efficiency and environmental management is linked to profitability.

He praised Bord Bia’s Origin Green marketing initiative, observing that it “offers sustainability branding for the industry; marks us 0ut as a country that takes this seriously”. He has noticed when attending trade fairs in Asia that marketers are interested in the sustainability of the food system. The Minister stressed the value of sharing information and pooling experiences, and noted that Origin Green recognises that companies are on “different stages of their sustainability journey”.

He also spoke of Brexit, citing it as the single biggest challenge for the agri business sector in Ireland and highlighting the volume of our exports to the UK.

20161123_134034

 Minister Michael Creed speaks at Future in Food

The rest of the day consisted of a number of short presentations from individuals in the industry and a brief summary of each talk follows.

9.30am – Richard Alexander – Industrial Manager – Calor Ireland

Richard explained how Calor is bringing Biopropane bioLPG fuel – a byproduct of biodiesel manufacturing – into Ireland in partnership with Swiss company Neste. He noted that use of biofuel can result in up to 80% GHG emission reductions.

09.55am – Nigel McGuire – Director of Development – McDonalds Restaurants

After an outline of McDonald’s approach to sustainability, Nigel focused on meat production, and outlined some striking facts on Irish beef. Ireland is the largest producer of beef in the Northern hemisphere, and McDonalds is the largest single purchaser of that beef. 1 of every 5 burgers sold by McDonalds in Europe is from Ireland.

He also spoke of the targets the company has set under the Origin Green program, such as 100% of fleet by 2017 to be fueled by biodiesel from waste oil from its restaurants. He suggested that companies should not have a sustainability department, there should instead be a “culture of sustainability”.

Nigel then presented a video in which a farmer supported by McDonalds noted that the company encourages the ‘3 Es’ – food produced in an ethical, environmentally friendly and economically viable manner.

10.20am – John Durkan – Sustainability Manager – ABP Food Grp

John’s brief was what comes next after “doing more with less”. The sustainability program at ABP, Europe’s largest red meat processor, started off as a resource efficiency programme, but the company is now aiming to go beyond this to reduce total waste and food losses.

John also presented some  useful statistics on water use in agriculture, noting that it takes 16,000 litres of water to produce a kilo of beef, that 92% of all the world’s water is used in agriculture, and that 40% of the world’s population are water stressed. This is an area of big focus for ABP and the company has received the Gold standard from the European water stewardship programme.

John presented ABP’s 2020 targets (see below) and noted that the company has already achieved zero waste to landfill target. He explained that they have made their facilities carbon neutral through using biodiesel as fuel.

20161123_133821

John Durkan of ABP Food Group

The company is also working with farms on a number of interesting initiatives, such as working with Genus to develop different breeds and strains of animals with better conversion ratios to beef.

In reponse to a question from the audience he suggested that we can meet the EU emissions targets through efficiency and significant investment in new technology. Measuring and monitoring was his mantra and he cited Origin Green as helpful in that regard.

11.15am – Eleanor Meade – Operations Manager – Meade Potato Company

Eleanor described how the Meade Potato Company used Bord Bia’s Origin Green program to engage with sustainability, suggesting that the progam has allowed them to formalise what they’re doing and helps them to set objectives. She observed that “Origin Green reformalises the process of what we do, challenges us to do more and helps us focus in on the key areas”.

She stressed that sustainability involves the whole supply chain, noting that lot of fruit product has to be imported so they are always thinking about carbon footprint. Eleanor cautioned that decisions sometimes “boil back to money – how much does this cost and is there a benefit for everyone involved?” However, she clarified that “if we spend a bit more initially we know we’ll get it back in the long term”.

She also discussed the importance of using the whole crop, and the issue of “visually impaired potatoes”. These are processed into chips, used as stock feed and donated through CrossCare (http://www.crosscarefoodbank.ie/). Eleanor highlighted the “Feeding the 5k” event in 2012 in which Meade Potatoes participanted, where 5,000 people in Dublin and Cork were given dinner made with visually impaired food (http://www.feeding5kdublin.org/). She also noted that retailers are now making an effort to market wonky fruit and veg, citing Woolworth’s (Australia) “Odd bunch” initiative (https://www.woolworths.com.au/Shop/Discover/our-brands/the-odd-bunch)

Related image

“Wonky fruit and veg are gaining popularity” – the Odd Bunch

11.40am – Majella Kelleher – Energy Demand Manager – SEAI

Majella outlined SEAI business supports, with a particular focus on their EXEED certification programme for buildings. This helps organisations to build in energy efficiency at any point in the building process but particularly at the design stage when, she explained, it is most important.

12.00am – Keith Bonner – Sustainability Director – Irish Fish Canners

Irish Fish Canners packs Irish mackeral and herring for international markets. Keith began with the story of how they recently changed the size of their cans, helping them to reduce energy use and emissions. It is interesting to note that it took two and a half years to change the can size, illustrating the complexity of making product changes for sustainability. This helped them to reduce their carbon footprint by 20%. On the company’s Origin Green certification he commented that “at the start [of Origin Green] you think its a mountain to climb but once you start it makes you better”. This was echoed by a number of the SMEs presenting during the day.

12.20pm – Una Fitzgibbon – Director of Marketing Services – Origin Green

Úna took us through the development of the Origin Green program and Bord Bia’s plans for the future. She began by arguing that “the future of food is sustainability” and “embracing sustainability has assisted the growth of the industry”. She outlined her reasons to engage with sustainability in the slide below:

20161123_123859

Una Fitzgibbon of Bord Bia outlines why business should engage with sustainability

Úna also explained that trade customers in the industry see sustainability as important to their busines, and Origin Green allows Ireland to work with these organisations. She suggested that the programme can be implemented in Ireland because the whole industry will work together in a small country.

Úna described Origin Green as a  “platform for communicating the sustainability credentials of the industry”. She said that these credentials are “currency, in demand from our trade customers. And in the future as millenials come down the line [sustainability] will be more in demand”. Bord Bia has evidence of trade customers extending contracts due to Origin Green and surveys at international trade fairs have estimated 30% awareness of Origin Green.

The program is currently being piloted out through services e.g. supermarkets and restaurants, and will soon move on to distribution. She noted that health and wellness is important to Origin Green and will be an emphasis going forward.

The long-term goal of Origin Green is to “build a sustainable food demonstration in Ireland”. Úna stated that “nation branding” is uniquely important to a small country like Ireland. Origin Green is “the opportunity to brand the country for its green credentials, not just its green image, through the delivery of real, green, evidence based data“.

1.45pm – John Curran – Head of Sustainability – Musgrave Group

Retail group Musgraves is the largest private sector employer in Ireland, employing over 35,000 people. John Curran explained how the company’s existing values as a family business align with sustainability e.g. taking a long-term view. The purpose of the business is to maintain it for future generations, which echoes the Brundtland definition of SD. He explained that for Musgraves, sustainable development requires that we see the world as a system; “things that happen in one time in one area have an impact on another time and another area”.

It was good to see a business engaging with the real issues of sustainability, as illustrated by this slide John presented.

20161123_152440

John Curran, Musgrave Group

When revising their sustainability strategy in 2015 Musgraves looked to the SDGs and decided to focus on 9 goals, as illustrated in the figure below.Image result for musgrave sustainability

Musgrave Group’s strategy aligned to UN Sustainable Development Goals

2.10pm – Richard Keagan – FIEI Manager – Enterprise Ireland

Dr Keegan talked about lean management, which he dubbed “Operation Transformation for business”. He took us through Enterprise Ireland’s lean business offers (https://www.enterprise-ireland.com/en/productivity/lean-business-offer/).

2.30am – Mark Haughey – Sustainability Manager – Coca Cola (HBC)

Mark explained Coke’s sustainability policy and highlighted what the company has done in the areas of water, carbon and waste. With the help of the slide below he illustrated how the company has achieved zero waste in its Lisburn plant.

20161123_145824

Mark Haughey from Coca-Cola

3.25pm – James Cherry – Grp. Environmental Manager – Greencore

James discussed energy management at Greencore, which he explained was catalysed by the UK ESOS initiative, which requires organisations to perform an energy audit but, oddly not to act on any of the issues identified. Starting from scratch the business has focused first on short term energy efficiency measures and will look at more long term renewable energy projects in the future.

3.45pm – Patrick Rooney – Managing Director – Derrycamma Farm

Derrycamma farm is a tillage farm producing rape seed oil. Patrick had some interesting insight into joining Origin Green as a small company. He noted that the key was tailoring the programme to fit the business. He also benefited from the help of LEAF in the UK, which helped Derrycamma focus on soil protection.

4.10pm – Birgitta Hedin-Curtin – Founder – Burren Smokehouse

The Burren Smokehouse is now a food tourism business as well as a food producer, attracting 45,000 visitors every year to its visitors centre. Birgitta noted that when they first heard of Origin Green they thought “do we need this, are we not sustainable already? But then we realised that this was an opportunity”. They also found the Burren Code of Practice helpful when applying for Origin Green certification. She suggested that when people are on holidays is the best time to get a sustainability message across to them.

Related image

The Burren